Tuesday, June 20, 2006

Fitness Equipment - Are Elliptical Reviews Helpful?

If you go to any major gym or health club like 24 Hour Fitness, Bally's, the YMCA, or even Gold's Gym, you are going to see many elliptical exercise machines all over the gym. Elliptical fitness machines are quickly becoming the hottest trend in fitness today. Whether it's at the gym or in the home, these machines are dominating the fitness industry today. It's no wonder why either, elliptical fitness machines give you a great cardiovascular workout along with toning your muscles and providing several other conditioning exercises.

While these elliptical fitness machines can be found in every gym and health club in the country, there are many people who would rather work out in the privacy of their own homes instead. With such a wide variety of ellipticals on the market, the question comes down to trying to decide which one to purchase? How do you sort out the good ones from the not so good ones? After all, you want to get the best elliptical machine for your money, but you also want the best fitness workout and equipment reliability.

Due to the fact that specifications can vary widely between machines, as well as all the different price points, the decision on which fitness machine to purchase can be extremely confusing and difficult. Although price is a very important consideration, there are as many expensive elliptical machines that perform poorly as there are ones that work very well. The same can be said for the less expensive versions as well. Before you go out and purchase an elliptical fitness machine it would be wise to gain a basic knowledge of what to look for.

One of the better ways of educating yourself on ellipticals is to read many of the consumer reports in various fitness magazines. Magazines like Fitness Today always include reviews of the many different fitness and exercise machines on the market today. Another good way to get advice and recommendations is to simply ask for the opinions from others who use them at the local gym or fitness center. People love to give their opinions on everything in life and fitness is no different. Also, many health and fitness websites will have good reviews on fitness equipment posted by the various readers. You can find literally hundreds of these different websites by doing a simple search on the Internet.

It would be very helpful and wise to do your own research on elliptical fitness machines. Taking the advice of a salesman at the local fitness store may not be the best way to go. You may get some great advice and help, but then again you may not. By doing your own research you can discover what machine meets your particular requirements. You'll also find all types of different prices online that may include a real bargain on the elliptical fitness machine you really want.

All of the different consumer reports on ellipticals can be quite helpful when it comes time to making a decision on which fitness machine to buy and one that is in the price range you're looking for. Even though professional fitness reviews can be more detailed about specifications, etc., consumer reviews can often provide much better information. They typically include a wide range of opinions and first hand experiences on which elliptical machines are the best. If you keep these tips in mind, you'll find the perfect elliptical for your needs.

Michael Russell

Your Independent guide to Fitness

Monday, October 03, 2005

The benefits of fitness circuit training


The benefits of fitness circuit training

Fitness circuit training once or twice a week can significantly improve your overall fitness. A look at some of the many benefits.

Always check your exercise program with your doctor.

Circuit training has become increasingly popular with regular gym-goers, the reason being, that it provides a one-stop exercise session, combining cardiovascular activity, toning and resistance training. There have been several reports recently, about the many benefits you can derive from attending circuit training even just once or twice a week Studies have concluded that, depending on the structure and balance of the session, you can dramatically improve your fitness level by taking part in circuit training exercises. The key to success lies in the formula of performing a set of exercises quickly and in rotation.

The effectiveness of a circuit training session depends on several factors:

Length of intervals between circuits.

The number of circuits performed.

The number of workout stations.

The time spent at each station (60 seconds has been suggested as ideal).

The intensity and speed at which each activity is performed.

Whether rests are included between circuits. On this subject, there are mixed views. It is best to take into consideration your individual fitness level.

The diversity of exercises within a circuit. The greater the variety of activities, the better it is for overall fitness.

What are the main benefits of circuit training?

Whatever your level of fitness, whether you’re a top athlete or merely a beginner, you can all work together in the same training session. It is perfectly acceptable for you to work at your own pace within each activity and workout-station. How you use your 60 seconds, is entirely up to you.

You can significantly improve your cardiovascular fitness level by exercising in short bursts of approximately 60 seconds each.

The types of aerobic exercises favoured by circuit trainers are targeted at maximum effect in the minimum time e.g. press-ups, leg raises, ski jumps, step-ups and shuttle runs are all excellent for elevating the heart beat rate. These exercises also concentrate on muscle groups which use a lot of energy.

If you follow an aerobic work-station with a high repetition and strength station, you will sustain a raised heart rate and therefore get the best possible results.

Circuit training is excellent for developing good basic strength and body tone.

Circuit training tends to concentrate on “compound exercises”, i.e. those that use more than one muscle group at a time. These “combined” exercises are generally more effective than spending time on one piece of gym equipment that focuses on one set of muscles only.

The type of rotational activity involved in circuit training is an excellent fat burner.

Circuit training is psychologically rewarding. Whatever your level of fitness, you can really push yourself and set your own goals in the knowledge that you’ve only got 60 seconds worth of any activity before you move on to the next.

The benefits of taking part in circuit training can be summed up in a few words:

“Maximum results in the minimum time”. It is probably one of the best methods of exercising as it provides excellent all round fitness, tone and strength.


Exercise for seniors


Exercise for seniors

Regular exercise can greatly improve the lives and general health of all senior citizens, whether the lifestyle is moderately active or inactive.

Regular exercise can greatly enhance the lives and general health of all senior citizens, whether the lifestyle is moderately active or inactive. Health conditions do not eliminate the need for exercise. Many conditions can be helped by regular activity and strength training, although a doctor should always be consulted.

Inactive seniors should set up a program which gradually builds to at least thirty minutes of moderately intense exercise. In addition, this program should include some weight-bearing exercise. Those seniors who are already at least moderately active can set a goal to increase the intensity of activity while targeting specific areas of improvement. For all fitness levels, a thirty-minute period of activity should be the target.

Aerobic exercise should be used to improve cardiovascular health and general fitness. This type of activity can also help to eliminate excess weight. For improved strength and a reduction in risk for osteoporosis, weight-bearing and resistance exercises are recommended. Static stretching and abdominal curls improve lower back strength and help in toning muscles and maintaining flexibility.

Precautions should always be taken to guard against possible injury, especially in cases of pre-existing health conditions. Anyone suffering from any of the following should consult a physician before embarking upon any type of fitness program.

---heart conditions


---high blood pressure

---bone or joint problems


---any undiagnosed symptoms

Also, before starting an exercise program, safety should be taken into account. Even if walking is the only form of exercise, proper footwear is needed. Strong, well-fitting shoes should always be worn. For biking or skating, helmets and padding are necessary safety equipment. Other important safety measures include:

---warming-up before any exercise

---beginning slowly and gradually building intensity in any activity

---never increasing the length or intensity of any fitness activity by more than ten percent weekly

---planning a varied fitness program to allow for overall body conditioning

---drinking water before, during and after exercise--not waiting to become thirsty

---obtaining proper training in the use of weights before any kind of weight training exercises

---stopping exercise immediately if any pain or swelling occurs

---never exercising until breathing becomes labored (if talking is difficult while performing any exercise, the intensity should be reduced)


Endurance exercise increases the heart rate and breathing, thereby helping to condition the heart, lungs and the circulatory system. Building endurance also helps to delay or prevent many diseases associated with aging.

Strength exercise increase general strength and muscle mass while regulating metabolism and keeping blood sugar and weight levels balanced. By helping in weight reduction, strength exercises lower risk for ailments such as diabetes, which are common in obese individuals.

Flexibility exercises or stretching improve overall body tone and conditioning. Better body flexibility also aids in the healing of healing of injuries.

Balance exercises build muscles in arms and legs to help improve equilibrium and prevent falls, which are a serious issue with senior citizens.

While all of the exercise types should be done as a well-rounded program, a gradual increase in activity is still important. A sudden change in the level of exertion can cause serious injuries. No matter what the fitness level, improvements should be gradually made.

For the senior citizen who is already active and has a higher degree of overall fitness, a gradual increase of intensity can still be beneficial to maintain the level of conditioning. Even much older and frail seniors can engage in exercise to improve health and flexibility, although a doctor should always be consulted first.


Find a good exercise program


Find a good exercise program

Learn how to choose an exercise program that is right for you.

Many people today are overweight and never exercise regularly, most of them also suffer from three out of four chronic health problems: arthritis, hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes. The most important physiological benefit of exercise is that it helps maintain heart and lung fitness. This article discusses how exercise lowers hypertension, prevents loss of muscle mass and reduces body fat, and helps maintain ideal body weight. People with hypertension should consult their physician before starting any form of exercise because even mild exercise temporarily raises blood pressure. Proper exercise can be beneficial even for people with a number of illnesses, including hypertension and diabetes, but a vigorous exercise program should not be undertaken without first consulting a physician or health practitioner.

Before starting an exercise program, it is important that people determine their current health status. Those who have been inactive for a number of years or have a diagnosed illness should consult their physician first. It is wise that all potential exercisers undergo a complete physical examination before embarking on a regular training program. It is important to remember that people should never exceed their capacity for exercise, or serious injury can result. Similarly, people who consistently overexercise can become sore and tired, and actually end up in worse condition than before they started. Most importantly, many experts now warn that overexercise can precipitate a heart attack, even in apparently healthy individuals. Another precaution to keep in mind is to drink water or other non-sugar liquids while exercising, particularly during hot weather.

While people of all ages should exercise to maintain good health, the type of exercise varies for different age groups. Not all forms of exercise are equally beneficial for every individual. In aerobic exercises such as walking, running, swimming, and cycling, rhythmic contraction and relaxation of flexor and extensor muscle groups occur, which promotes blood flow through the arteries to and from the heart. At the right pace, such activities can be continued for long periods. In isometric exercises--in which muscles are held in contraction for prolonged periods, such as in weight lifting--the sustained contraction limits blood flow by compressing the small arteries, and fails to help pump blood back to the heart. Moreover, the acute increase of blood pressure associated with isometrics can be very hazardous to people with heart disease or high blood pressure.

The most important physiological benefit of exercise is that it helps maintain heart and lung fitness. As the heart becomes less efficient with age, oxygen is thus delivered to the muscles more slowly. The respiratory system, including the lungs, provides the body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide via tiny air sacs in the lungs called alveoli. Exercise increases the size of the heart muscle and its chamber volume, and greatly improves its efficiency, both the pumping of the heart and the functioning of the arteries affect blood pressure.

Exercise lowers hypertension (high blood pressure): Diastolic blood pressure rises with age by as much as 10 per cent between the ages of 60 and 70. Poor nutrition, a sedentary lifestyle, and an increasing intake of medications generally combine to increase blood pressure in the elderly. As a result, the heart has to pump harder than normal because of an excess of fluid in the bloodstream combined with narrowed or constricted arteries. Along with stress reduction therapies such as yoga, meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback, regular sustained exercise effectively lowers blood pressure. The best exercises, according to clinical trials, are those that reduce the level of stress hormones in the bloodstream that constrict the arteries and veins. Progressive weight lifting, walking or jogging three times a week for 20 minutes, stationary bicycling, and a combination of walking, jogging, and bike riding have all been found to lower blood pressure. As people age, they can lose as much as 10 to 12 per cent of their muscle mass with no appreciable loss in overall body weight. In fact, they normally gain weight.

The benefits of exercise in helping people lose weight or maintain their ideal body weight have been extensively documented in many studies. Exercise burns calories consumed as food, and raises the basal metabolic rate. In order for an individual to lose weight, energy intake must be less than energy expenditure. This can be done by decreasing calorie intake (dieting) or by increasing the rate at which the calories are burned (exercise). Exercise not only helps control weight gain, but it also plays an important role in improving glucose tolerance and reducing insulin resistance - both significant factors in the development of diabetes. Glucose tolerance is a measure of the body's ability to metabolize glucose as it is released into the bloodstream. This ability usually declines with ages. Since insulin's ability to convert glucose in the cells is also reduced, glucose can gradually increase to dangerous levels in the bloodstream. Increased muscle activity, however, accelerates the transport of glucose into muscle cells regardless of the presence of insulin, thereby helping to compensate for insulin resistance. Consequently, exercise can sometimes be a useful tool for controlling type II diabetes. It may also forestall the serious complications of the disease.

Choosing the right exercise and the amount of exercise you need, will depend on your goals. In order to achieve a training effect and thereby cardiorespiratory fitness, you,ll need to perform aerobic exercise three to five times a week. Depending on how fit you already are and how intensely you exercise, each session should last at least 60 minutes, which includes the warm-up and cool-down activities you perform. Exercising less than this will not help you achieve an adequate training effect for fitness. On the other hand, recent studies have indicated that it isn,t necessary to exercise at a high training intensity to reap certain health benefits. Walking--fast becoming one of the most popular forms of exercise today--requires no special skills or equipment and can be stopped at any time without danger.

Brisk walking--which offers virtually the same health and fitness benefits as running or jogging, but without stress to the joints and risk of injury-- has become a favorite exercise for many.

Regular, moderate-intensity endurance exercises such as 30 minutes of walking every day can reduce mild to moderate hypertension, and help people avoid getting high blood pressure. A good pair of walking shoes is absolutely essential. Experts suggest that beginners start with a simple 10-minute walk at any speed, five minutes out and five minutes back. During the second week, build up to 15 minutes a day. By the third week, increase to 20 minutes a day. And by the fourth week, continue to walk 20 minutes a day, but after warming up with a slow stroll for five minutes, pick up the pace until eventually you are walking briskly, as if you are late for an appointment. End the exercise by slowing your pace back down to a stroll, then cool down with passive stretching, and drink at least 2 glasses of water. Walkers will see immediate results in three to four weeks in the form of more strength and firmness in their legs. By the end of eight weeks, they will begin to lose body fat.

Other forms of exercise include aerobic dancing, rowing, cross-country skiing, swimming, bicycling, and tennis.


How Important Is A Golf Fitness Program


How Important Is A Golf Fitness Program
By Mike Pedersen

A golf fitness program can make the difference between you optimizing your golf potential or playing the same frustrating golf you may be used to playing.

It’s no secret that the body swings the club and plays the game…so why wouldn’t you consider a golf fitness program to play your best?

A golf fitness program consists of strength, flexibility, endurance and even nutrition. But the big difference is making your golf fitness program as golf-specific as you can.

How do you do that?

First off…just take a look at the position your body is in during the golf swing. It’s “on your feet” and in golf posture (bent at the waste, knees flexed, upper back fairly straight, ankles flexed, etc…).

Can you now see how any “physical limitation” you have will dramatically affect your ability to make a sound, repeatable golf swing?

So the answer is definitely starting a golf fitness program. It’s not as intimidating as you may think. It doesn’t take going to a gym. It doesn’t involve lifting heavy weights and really killing yourself. It doesn’t involve 2 hours every day of the week either.

A golf fitness program can be as simple as using a pair of hand weights (dumbbells), an exercise ball and exercise tubing. All very inexpensive, portable and perfect for your home or even your office.

You can take your exercise tubing, attach it to a door and make downswings every day of the week. This is a great exercise to sneak in at your office that will have a direct impact on the power you produce through impact.

Designing a “complete golf fitness program” will take a little more creativity. I would strongly recommend pursuing a qualified golf fitness trainer to put together a complete golf fitness program that addresses your specific physical limitations.

You don’t want to waste your time on exercises and stretches you don’t need to do. You want to focus on a balanced golf fitness program that will improve your weaknesses.

You will be amazed how quickly your game will turn around. I’ve worked with golfers who have seen improvements in a matter of days! Literally! Their fitness had declined so much they couldn’t even get the ball airborne off the tee and within days were hitting it dozens of yards further.

What a joy to hear stories like that!

You too can see some huge improvements if you start your golf fitness program right away!

About The Author: Mike Pedersen is one of the top golf fitness experts in the country, author of the Ultimate Golf Fitness Guide, and founder of several cutting-edge online golf fitness sites. For more information on Mike's golf fitness programs, visit his new golf fitness site at Perform Better Golf.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/


Fitness For Busy Corporates


Fitness For Busy Corporates
By Kiran Sawhney

Corporate fitness Training

Companies of all shapes and sizes are striving to make physical fitness part of their employees' lives. Aside from the proven health benefits of exercise, physically fit employees can also handle physical work tasks better, deal with stressful situations more easily and tend to be less susceptible to illness and injuries. Companies are discovering the positive benefits of providing workplace fitness programs. They're realizing that huge funds being spent on employees' medical health problems can be drastically cut by proactively investing in appropriately designed corporate fitness programs. Statistics show that companies with corporate fitness programs enjoy: Reduced Health Care Costs, Increased Productivity, Reduced Absenteeism, decreased recruitment and retraining costs, improved employee concentration, mental alertness and creativity, improved physical and emotional health, leading to better employee morale. The benefit from the employee's standpoint is improved health and energy levels, decreased body fat, and a more youthful, fit body

Recent studies show that increased exercise is a great way for employees to unwind from the pressure and stresses of everyday work. They are able to quit smoking easily. They drink less & are more patient with their colleagues & clients. As a result, productivity and motivation also increases, making businesses more profitable and less stressful. Companies are now starting to warm to this idea, either setting up corporate fitness memberships to the local gym, or better still setting up, tennis or squash court and gyms within their offices. Great, except for the fact that to get the best benefits sometimes requires a little extra help from trainers. Having a corporate personal trainer on hand for offices could maximize company’s investment in that employee.

The elements of fun, acceptance, belonging, motivation, encouragement and reinforcement are attempted to institute within a corporate wellness program. Employees are treated as individuals, with their own needs and goals. The trainer notes their personal and family health history, physical limitations, expectations and fitness goals. Their fitness level is evaluated. For employees with less physical jobs, it’s ideal to measure cardio respiratory endurance, body composition and flexibility. For employees with more physically demanding jobs, measure of muscle strength and endurance is taken. A person with sedentary job might have nagging back problems. Carpel tunnel syndrome, amongst person working on a computer most of the time is not unheard of. Incorrect posture in any job situation also needs to be rectified. Hunching shoulders, stooping back, poor eyesight can all be taken care of by proper counseling. Utilizing the information from the initial consultation and fitness evaluation, an Individual Exercise Prescription (IEP) for each participating employee is created. Exercise sessions include:

· Warm-up activities

· Aerobic conditioning

· Toning

· Strength training

· Flexibility exercises


Some other formats of fitness regimes followed by these corporate are: yoga, kickboxing, low impact, interval training, body sculpt, Pilates, tai chi, Latin dance, ’ Lunch & Learn' seminars, ergonomic assessments and recommendations for the workplace, 'Corporate Wellness Fairs’ , weight loss and nutrition program. For a very busy corporate, who is always on the move, an expert can design a thorough workout plan of just thirty minute capsule, which can take care of all his problems and still do justice to his fitness levels. Training sessions teach safe, effective exercise techniques and educate employees on training intensity, frequency and progression to maximize results and reduce injuries.

The employer receives detailed reports on employee group's participation rates and fitness results. The employees receive reports on their initial fitness level and subsequent improvement as determined by ongoing fitness evaluations.

The idea of corporate fitness is not just a fashionable fad; rather companies with international standards find it mandatory to prove the health & fitness of their employees. People are soon realizing that a fit body does not mean necessarily a thin body. Healthy mind in a healthy body is soon becoming the order of the day & we should all welcome this positive change in the general mindset of the masses.

With the increase in work related stress, companies are incorporating gyms in their premises.· Corporate gyms help the employees to be physically fitter & mentally alert.· It helps to increase productivity & reduce medical costs.· It creates bonding amongst the employees who workout together in less formal surroundings.· It is a good idea to hire a qualified corporate fitness trainer & seek positive results minus the injuries.

1. Speedo –aqua aerobics, Taekwonaqua and aqua aerobics for kids. 2. Reebok- Aerobics, Step aerobics, Conditioning, strength, flexibility & Core Pilates. 3. Idea- member of Idea fitness in California for personal training. 4. IFA (International Fitness Association) - Orlando, Florida- Personal Trainer, Kickboxing, Step & Aerobics 5. Resolutions of Reebok 6. Experienced in all kinds of exercise equipment: Thera Band, tubing, stability trainer, flex bar, Swiss ball, medicine ball, Rebounder, free weights, Ramp, Bosu 7. Also do Masala bhangra aerobics and dandiya aerobics. 8. Learnt Chi Kung & Zhan Zhuang and Tai Chi in Singapore 9. Learnt basics of yoga from Sivananda . 10. Shiatsu from Japan 11. CPR certified

*presently I am doing personal training, corporate training, & conducting group fitness classes in my own studio- FITNESOLUTION in New Delhi.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/


A Fitness Mothers Time


A Fitness Mothers Time
By Raymond Burton

So you've been a mother for a while. Good for you, mothers are important. I know I have one! But you know what? I've seen my mother get so tied up from taking care of Dad, me and the house that she had very little time to take care of her fitness. Boy, the things you see in retrospect. Anyway, my mother used to be a beanpole; fitness came from all kinds of activity. I've seen the wedding photos so I know it to be so! I can also remember my mother putting on weight over the years. I'm sure my mother will read this, so I must choose my words carefully! When I think about it though, I know why this can happen to a lot of mothers. Life gets in the way and fitness takes a side seat.

It can be truly hard to find time for fitness as a mother when you have a child, or even two for that matter! The amount of running around and chores that need to be done can make you really tired at the end of the day and the last thing you’re thinking of is fitness.

If you're a working mother, you can add a whole other dimension to the busy factor. Needless to say, with the build up of things expected of a mother, fitness is not on your mind at the end of the day. You get very limited time to yourself except for that cherished time once the gremlins are put to bed or are in school. That's a small window of opportunity if you want to incorporate fitness into your lifestyle and be a good mother to boot.

Its tuff to get the time to work out but it’s even tougher to be happy when your self image is at an all time low. Fitness makes mothers feel good about them selves. Your self-image plays an important role in how close you can be with your spouse also. I don't think I'll get into this too much, but things heat up between partners when they feel confident about their bodies. I mean, sometimes the spark can fade a little if a couple drops fitness and their bodies slide.

You owe it to your self to have "me time" also. It's important to your well being as a mother. Schedule it in. Get fitness into your life. All activity in life involves fitness, and anything can be made into a workout. Go for a walk. Hire a fitness trainer to come to your home to put you through a workout.

You should also talk to other mothers that are into fitness. I've found that in almost every situation that life can offer, that if you want to achieve something, the shortest route to success is to ask someone who is already there. The other thing is like my mother said, "You are who you hang around with". It's so true. If you want fitness in your life, hang around with mothers that think fitness is important.

Making fitness part of your life is so easy when your friends are into it too. They eat healthy so you eat healthy. You can go for walks together, support each other and on and on. It's an upward spiral of fitness mayhem! Now that is a great thing.

Ray Burton is a personal trainer in Calgary Alberta. He has trained for Golds Gym, World Health Club and the Canadian Military. Now running his own personal training company "Buildingbodies Personal Training" and promoting his book "Fat To Fit", Ray enjoys helping people live better lives through his fitness tips newsletter

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/




Life Fitness Equipment for Every Type of Workout


Life Fitness Equipment for Every Type of Workout
By Ken Austin

Life Fitness equipment is among the best in the world. Life Fitness is a global company specializing in superior fitness equipment that is designed to provide you with a complete body workout and give you quality construction that is unsurpassed in the fitness industry. Professional athletes, military personnel, health clubs, and Olympic medalists can all attest to the superb design and effectiveness of Life Fitness equipment.

Life Fitness offers equipment for every type of workout you can possibly imagine. Life Fitness equipment is in the higher price range as fitness equipment goes, but the quality and sleek design are superior to most other brands. If you are searching for fitness equipment for your home or business, Life Fitness can provide you with every imaginable type of exercise equipment and you will receive the most durable, rugged machines in existence today.

Life Fitness manufactures equipment for the casual user at home to serious professional that require vigorous workouts on professional equipment. Life Fitness is a world renowned manufacturer of top quality fitness equipment and you can be assured that in purchasing from Life Fitness you will be receiving the most durable, effective fitness equipment available today.

The Life Fitness company started in 1968 with a modest line of equipment and products. Since that time Life Fitness has grown into a global force in fitness and exercise equipment. The Life Fitness company is dedicated to helping people achieve their fitness goals and providing the public with top quality equipment that is made to last. Life Fitness can be purchased online, through various retailers, and there are great deals available on used Life Fitness equipment.

Ken Austin is the webmaster at http://www.onlinehomegym.com and http://fitness-equipment.mynichesites.com

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/





Marines doing push-ups.The word exercise can mean the following:

A setting in action or practicing.
Any activity designed to develop or hone a skill or ability.
Physical exercise
Contents [hide]
1 Physical exercise
2 Exercise benefits
3 Common myths
4 Too much exercise
5 List of activities used as physical exercises
6 List of classes of physical exercise
7 Breathing
8 See also
9 External links

Physical exercise
Physical exercise is activity performed in order to develop or maintain physical fitness and overall health. Frequent and regular exercise is an important component in the prevention of some of the diseases of affluence such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes and obesity.

Exercises are generally grouped into three types depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:

Flexibility exercises such as stretching improve the range of motion of muscles and joints.
Aerobic exercises such as walking and running focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance.
Anaerobic exercises such as weightlifting increase short-term muscle strength.
Exercise can be an important part of physical therapy, weight loss or sports performance.

Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise. When exercising it becomes even more important to have good diet to ensure the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients whilst providing ample micronutrients, this is to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise.

"Exercise bulimia" is a disorder in which too many calories are purged from the body through exercising.

It should be noted that Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness can occur after any kind of exercise, particularly if the body is in an unconditioned state relative to that exercise.

Exercise benefits
Frequent and regular exercise has been shown to help prevent or to improve major illnesses such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, insomnia, cancer [1] and depression, among others.

Common myths
Many common myths have arisen surrounding exercise, some of which have a basis in reality, and some which are completely false.

Spot reduction.
It is a common belief that training a particular body part will preferentially shed the fat on that part; for example, that doing sit-ups is the most direct way to reduce subcutaneous belly fat. This is false. Most of the energy derived from fat gets to the muscle through the bloodstream and reduces stored fat in the entire body. Fat is reduced in a pattern determined mostly by genetics. Sit-ups may improve the size and shape of core muscles and may reduce the unsightly appearance of belly fat, but the belly fat will often be the last fat removed from the body.

Only overweight people need a physical before beginning an exercise program.
Absolutely false. Only a physician can determine your ability to engage in an exercise program. Apparently healthy people can still have unknown medical conditions, such as a heart murmur, that can cause severe injury or death not only to themselves, but also to others that are dependent upon them, such as someone they are spotting.

Muscle tissue will turn into fat once a person stops exercising.
False. Fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentally different. However, the more common expression of this myth "muscle will turn to fat" has a grain of truth. Although a muscle cell will not become a fat cell, the material that makes up muscle can in fact turn to fat. The catabolism of muscle fibers releases protein, which can turn to glucose that can be burned as fuel, and excesses of which can be stored as fat. Moreover, the composition of a body part can change toward less muscle and more fat, so that a cross-section of the upper-arm for example, will have a greater area corresponding to fat and a smaller area corresponding to muscle.

Too much exercise
Doing too much exercise can sometimes be harmful. The body needs time to rest, which is why most health officials say one should exercise every other day or 3 times a week. Without proper rest the chance of strokes or other circulation problems is increased, and muscle will develop slower.

Over-exercising does more harm than good. Performance is lost over-exercising, although the levels required to reach this are phenomenal (many hours every day of the week). For many activities, especially running, there are also significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules.

In addition, a relatively recently discovered phenomenon is that of Exercise hypertension, where the body's blood pressure spikes during intense exercise.

List of activities used as physical exercises
martial arts
strip dance
warming up
weight training

List of classes of physical exercise
Aerobic exercise
Anaerobic exercise
Endurance exercise
High-density exercise
High-intensity interval training (HIIT)
Resistance training

Some activities can fall into more than one class of exercise. For instance: cycling can be used for endurance or high-intensity interval training; weightlifting is resistance training and can be high-density exercise with certain workout designs.

Active exhalation during physical exercise helps the body to increase its maximum lung capacity, and oxygen uptake. This results in greater cardiac efficiency, since the heart has to do less work to oxygenate the muscles, and there is also increased muscular efficiency through greater blood flow. Consciously breathing deeply during aerobic exercise helps this development of the heart lung efficiency.

During breathing, males mostly use the intercostal muscles in the rib cage, females mostly use abdominal muscles. In strenuous exercise, it is likely that these differences diminish.

See also
Cross training
Heart rate monitor
Exercise hypertension
Training Effect
Metabolic equivalent

External links
Exercise Adherence
Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children
Exercise Blogs are becoming more and more common both to learn new exercises from others as well as to gain semi-anonymous peer-pressure to help one stay on track.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise"


Physical fitness


Physical fitness

Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all militaries.The notion of physical fitness is used in two close meanings.

Contents [hide]
1 General fitness
2 Task-oriented fitness
2.1 Military-style
3 Notable fitness instructors
4 Related topics
5 External links

General fitness
In a more general meaning, physical fitness is a general state of good somatic health and abilities.

A handicapped person may nevertheless be physically fit. Fitness helps them to compensate disability.

Physical fitness is usually a result of regular physical activity, e.g., physical exercise, and proper nutrition.

Cardio is a type of fitness designed to improve cardiovascular strength.

Task-oriented fitness
A person may be said to be physically fit to perform a particular task with a reasonable efficiency, for example, fit for military service.

In recent years, Military-style fitness training programs have become increasingly popular among civilians. Courses are available all over the US and Europe.

They are usually taught by ex-military personnel. Very often the instructors held highly regarded positions within various military organizations. Often times the instructors were formerly Drill instructors, Special Forces Operatives or held otherwise distinguished positions.

These courses always have some common elements. They often focus on military style calisthenics and group runs. The courses are often held very early in the morning and will meet in almost any weather. Students can expect push-ups, sit-ups, pullups, and jumping jacks, as well as more obscure drills such as flutter kicks, sun worshippers and flares. Almost invariably a workout will include short runs while longer runs are more scheduled.

Notable fitness instructors
Jack LaLanne
Charles Atlas
Matt Furey
Dave Leslie at 'Keeping in Shape' in Cambridge, England
Billy Blanks (Master of Tae Bo)

Related topics
National Physical Fitness Award
Physical Fitness Badge
President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports

External links
Exercise and Physical Fitness - from MedlinePlus
National Association for Health and Fitness (NAHF) a non-profit organization that exists to improve the quality of life for individuals in the United States through the promotion of physical fitness, sports and healthy lifestyles and by the fostering and supporting of Governor’s and State Councils on physical fitness and sports in every state and U.S. territory. Sponsor of National Employee Health and Fitness.
The BSA Physical Fitness Award Boy Scouts of America - A Program of Emphasis for Cub Scouts, Boy Scouts, Venturers, and Leaders
Physical Fitness - Cub Scout Academics & Sports Guide
Boea Fitness Contains free weightloss information, articles & several workout routines.
The president's council on physical fitness and sports - Government operated website that provides unique physical fitness information & resources.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_fitness"
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.




Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. It describes the capability of an individual of certain genotype to reproduce, and usually is equal to the proportion of the individual's genes in all the genes of the next generation. If differences in individual genotypes affect fitness, then the frequencies of the genotypes will change over generations; the genotypes with higher fitness become more common. This process is called natural selection.

Contents [hide]
1 Measures of fitness
2 Discussion
3 History
4 References
5 External links

Measures of fitness
There are two commonly used measures of fitness; absolute fitness and relative fitness.

Absolute fitness (wabs) is defined for a given genotype for one generation as the ratio of organisms with that genotype after selection to those before. It may be calculated from absolute numbers or from frequencies, and as a ratio, is a value between 0 and 1.

Relative fitness is quantified as the average number of surviving progeny of a particular genotype compared with average number of surviving progeny of competing genotypes after a single generation, i.e. one genotype is normalized at w = 1 and the fitnesses of other genotypes are measured with respect to that genotype. Relative fitness can therefore take any positive value, including 0.

While researchers can usually measure relative fitness, absolute fitness is more difficult. It is often difficult to determine how many individuals of a genotype there were immediately after reproduction.

The two concepts are related, and both of them are equivalent when they are divided by the mean fitness, which is weighted by genotype frequencies.

Because fitness is a coefficient, and that coefficient may be multiplied by several times, biologists may work with "log fitness" (particularly so before the advent of computers). By taking the logarithm of fitness each term may be added rather than multiplied.

An individual's fitness is manifested through its phenotype. As phenotype is affected by both genes and environment, the fitnesses of different individuals with same genotype are not necessarily equal, but depend on the environment in which the individuals live.

As fitness measures the quantity of the copies of the genes of an individual in the next generation, it doesn't really matter how the genes arrive in the next generation. That is, for an individual it is equally beneficial to reproduce itself, or to help relatives with similar genes to reproduce, as long as similar amount of copies of individual's genes get passed on to the next generation. Selection which promotes this kind of helper behaviour is called kin selection.

A fitness landscape is a way of visualising fitness in terms of peaks, where natural selection will always push uphill but , resulting in suboptimality.

Where there are differences in fitness, a genetic load is exerted on the population.

Richard Dawkins introduced the controversial concept of ethical fitnessism.

The British economist Herbert Spencer coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" in his 1851 work Social Statics and later used it to characterise what Charles Darwin had called natural selection. The British biologist J.B.S. Haldane was the first to quantify fitness, in terms of the modern evolutionary synthesis of Darwinism and Mendelian genetics starting with his 1924 paper A Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection. The next further advance was the introduction of the concept of inclusive fitness by the British biologist W.D. Hamilton in 1964 in his paper on The Evolution of Social Behavior.

Haldane, J.B.S. (1924) "A mathematical theory of natural and artificial selection" Part 1 Transactions of the Camrbidge philosophical society: 23: 19-41 link (pdf file)
Hamilton, W.D. (1964) "The evolution of social behavior" Journal of Theoretical Biology 1:...
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.